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1. Oxymetholone was first introduced by Ringold et al. in 1959.
2. Anabolic:androgenic ratios on oxymetholone were developed from in vivo rodent studies, cited here. These studies indicate that oxymetholone is as anabolic as oxandrolone, stanozolol, and less anabolic than nandrolone, but that it is more androgenic than all of them.
3. In rat and rabbit skeletal muscle androgen receptors, oxymetholone binds to the receptor extremely weakly, suggesting that it may exert its influence via metabolites or other receptors.
4. Oxymetholone is approved for the treatment of anemia by the FDA. It has also been studied for the treatment of HIV-induced wasting disease, antithrombin III deficiency, damaged myocardium in heart failure, and growth impairment in children.
1. Oxymetholone is a 17alpha-alkyl derivative of testosterone. The 17alpha-alkyl component prevents the inactivation of the molecule via oxidation of the 17-hydroxy group into a 17-keto group, thereby slowing metabolism in the liver.
2. In phase I metabolism, oxymetholone is oxidized at carbon 2 (C2), reduced at C3, and hydroxylated at C17.
3. Oxymetholone produces more than 40 metabolites, one of which can be monitored for up to two weeks.
4. Oxymetholone’s main metabolite is mestanolone/methylandrostanolone (17alpha-methyl-DHT).
5. Interestingly, fungi metabolize oxymetholone into immunosuppressant metabolites.
1. Oxymetholone produces more nitrogen retention than methyltestosterone.
1. Though it was recently suggested that androgens increase telomerase activity in hematopoietic cells, it remains unclear whether androgens directly raise erythropoiesis. Oxymetholone increases hematopoiesis stem cell activity but does not affect telomerase or erythropoietin expression.
2. Still, in humans concurrent administration of oxymetholone in addition to recombinant erythropoietin significantly improves the erythropoietic effect (and increases liver enzyme values).
1. Within 6 weeks, oxymetholone has produced hypertriglyceridemia and hyperlipidemia in a patient (as well as cerebral thrombosis).
1. Oxymetholone causes free radical-induced testicular damage that can be attenuated with the use of antioxidant compounds.
2. Cholestatic jaundice and hepatitis has occurred with oxymetholone use, causing some fatalities.
3. After discontinuation, oxymetholone has caused peliosis hepatis.
4. Oxymetholone use is also associated with benign and malignant liver tumors (i.e. adenomas and HCC).
5. Oxymetholone has caused acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis.
6. Oxymetholone can produce kidney damage (particularly to the glomeruli) in one day old rodents.
1. There are case reports of venous thrombosis (including cerebral) due to oxymetholone therapy.
2. Oxymetholone may produce insulin resistance.
3. Oxymetholone is not able to sustain sexual behavior of castrated rodents.
4. Oxymetholone appears to suppress corticosteroid production, which may cause compensatory adrenal hyperplasia. This appears to indicate that unlike mesterolone, mestanolone, and methenolone, weight gain from oxymetholone may not be due to the mineralocorticoid receptors.
5. Though carcinogenic, oxymetholone is not genotoxic.
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